php-question

Php Interview Questions and Answers – Part 1

1- What’s PHP ?
The PHP Hypertext Preprocessor is a programming language that allows web developers to create dynamic content that interacts with databases. PHP is basically used for developing web based software applications.

2- What Is a Session?
A session is a logical object created by the PHP engine to allow you to preserve data across subsequent HTTP requests.

There is only one session object available to your PHP scripts at any time. Data saved to the session by a script can be retrieved by the same script or another script when requested from the same visitor.

Sessions are commonly used to store temporary data to allow multiple PHP pages to offer a complete functional transaction for the same visitor.

3- What is the difference between $message and $$message?
Anwser 1:
$message is a simple variable whereas $$message is a reference variable. Example:
$user = ‘bob’

is equivalent to

$holder = ‘user’;
$$holder = ‘bob’;

Anwser 2:
They are both variables. But $message is a variable with a fixed name. $$message is a variable who’s name is stored in $message. For example, if $message contains “var”, $$message is the same as $var.

4- What Is a Persistent Cookie?
A persistent cookie is a cookie which is stored in a cookie file permanently on the browser’s computer. By default, cookies are created as temporary cookies which stored only in the browser’s memory. When the browser is closed, temporary cookies will be erased. You should decide when to use temporary cookies and when to use persistent cookies based on their differences:
*Temporary cookies can not be used for tracking long-term information.
*Persistent cookies can be used for tracking long-term information.
*Temporary cookies are safer because no programs other than the browser can access them.
*Persistent cookies are less secure because users can open cookie files see the cookie values.

5- How do you define a constant?
Via define() directive, like define (“MYCONSTANT”, 100);

6- What are the differences between require and include, include_once?
Anwser 1:
require_once() and include_once() are both the functions to include and evaluate the specified file only once. If the specified file is included previous to the present call occurrence, it will not be done again.

But require() and include() will do it as many times they are asked to do.

Anwser 2:
The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement, with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included, it will not be included again. The major difference between include() and require() is that in failure include() produces a warning message whereas require() produces a fatal errors.

Anwser 3:
All three are used to an include file into the current page.
If the file is not present, require(), calls a fatal error, while in include() does not.
The include_once() statement includes and evaluates the specified file during the execution of the script. This is a behavior similar to the include() statement, with the only difference being that if the code from a file has already been included, it will not be included again. It des not call a fatal error if file not exists. require_once() does the same as include_once(), but it calls a fatal error if file not exists.

Anwser 4:
File will not be included more than once. If we want to include a file once only and further calling of the file will be ignored then we have to use the PHP function include_once(). This will prevent problems with function redefinitions, variable value reassignments, etc.

7- What is meant by urlencode and urldecode?
Anwser 1:
urlencode() returns the URL encoded version of the given string. URL coding converts special characters into % signs followed by two hex digits. For example: urlencode(“10.00%”) will return “10%2E00%25″. URL encoded strings are safe to be used as part of URLs.
urldecode() returns the URL decoded version of the given string.

Anwser 2:
string urlencode(str) – Returns the URL encoded version of the input string. String values to be used in URL query string need to be URL encoded. In the URL encoded version:

Alphanumeric characters are maintained as is.
Space characters are converted to “+” characters.
Other non-alphanumeric characters are converted “%” followed by two hex digits representing the converted character.

string urldecode(str) – Returns the original string of the input URL encoded string.

For example:

$discount =”10.00%”;
$url = “http://domain.com/submit.php?disc=”.urlencode($discount);
echo $url;

You will get “http://domain.com/submit.php?disc=10%2E00%25″.

8- What is the difference between mysql_fetch_object and mysql_fetch_array?
MySQL fetch object will collect first single matching record where mysql_fetch_array will collect all matching records from the table in an array

9- How can I execute a PHP script using command line?
Just run the PHP CLI (Command Line Interface) program and provide the PHP script file name as the command line argument. For example, “php myScript.php”, assuming “php” is the command to invoke the CLI program.
Be aware that if your PHP script was written for the Web CGI interface, it may not execute properly in command line environment.

10- Would I use print “$a dollars” or “{$a} dollars” to print out the amount of dollars in this example?
In this example it wouldn’t matter, since the variable is all by itself, but if you were to print something like “{$a},000,000 mln dollars”, then you definitely need to use the braces.

11- What is the functionality of the functions STRSTR() and STRISTR()?
string strstr ( string haystack, string needle ) returns part of haystack string from the first occurrence of needle to the end of haystack. This function is case-sensitive.

stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.

12- When are you supposed to use endif to end the conditional statement?
When the original if was followed by : and then the code block without braces.
How can we send mail using JavaScript?
No. There is no way to send emails directly using JavaScript.

But you can use JavaScript to execute a client side email program send the email using the “mailto” code. Here is an example:

function myfunction(form)
{
tdata=document.myform.tbox1.value;
location=”mailto:mailid@domain.com?subject=…”;
return true;
}

13- What is the functionality of the function strstr and stristr?
strstr() returns part of a given string from the first occurrence of a given substring to the end of the string. For example: strstr(“user@example.com”,”@”) will return “@example.com”.
stristr() is idential to strstr() except that it is case insensitive.

14- What is the difference between ereg_replace() and eregi_replace()?
eregi_replace() function is identical to ereg_replace() except that it ignores case distinction when matching alphabetic characters.

15- How do I find out the number of parameters passed into function9. ?
func_num_args() function returns the number of parameters passed in.

16- If the variable $a is equal to 5 and variable $b is equal to character a, what’s the value of $$b?
100, it’s a reference to existing variable.

17- How To Protect Special Characters in Query String?
If you want to include special characters like spaces in the query string, you need to protect them by applying the urlencode() translation function. The script below shows how to use urlencode():

<?php
print(“<html>”);
print(“<p>Please click the links below”
.” to submit comments about TECHPreparation.com:</p>”);
$comment = ‘I want to say: “It’s a good site! :->”‘;
$comment = urlencode($comment);
print(“<p>”
.”<a href=”processing_forms.php?name=Guest&amp;comment=$comment”>”
.”It’s an excellent site!</a></p>”);
$comment = ‘This visitor said: “It’s an average site! <img class="wp-smiley" alt=":-(" src="http://www.phpzag.com/wp-includes/images/smilies/icon_sad.gif" /> “‘;
$comment = urlencode($comment);
print(“<p>”
.’<a href=”processing_forms.php?’.$comment.’”>’
.”It’s an average site.</a></p>”);
print(“</html>”);
?>

18- How do you call a constructor for a parent class?
parent::constructor($value)

19- WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF ERRORS IN PHP?
Here are three basic types of runtime errors in PHP:

1. Notices: These are trivial, non-critical errors that PHP encounters while executing a script – for example, accessing a variable that has not yet been defined. By default, such errors are not displayed to the user at all – although you can change this default behavior.

2. Warnings: These are more serious errors – for example, attempting to include() a file which does not exist. By default, these errors are displayed to the user, but they do not result in script termination.

3. Fatal errors: These are critical errors – for example, instantiating an object of a non-existent class, or calling a non-existent function. These errors cause the immediate termination of the script, and PHP’s default behavior is to display them to the user when they take place.

Internally, these variations are represented by twelve different error types

20- What’s the special meaning of __sleep and __wakeup?
__sleep returns the array of all the variables than need to be saved, while __wakeup retrieves them.

21- How can we submit a form without a submit button?
If you don’t want to use the Submit button to submit a form, you can use normal hyper links to submit a form. But you need to use some JavaScript code in the URL of the link. For example:

<a href=”javascript: document.myform.submit();”>Submit Me</a>

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